Ncoa3, nuclear receptor coactivator 3, is encoded by the Ncoa3 gene. Ncoa3 is a transcriptional activator protein that includes several nuclear receptor-interacting regions that have histone acetyltransferase activity and can acetylate histones to facilitate downstream DNA transcription, so Ncoa3 helps nuclear receptors promote gene expression. Ncoa3 is a proto-oncogene that is highly expressed in human tumor cells such as breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, and prostate cancer.
Nuclear receptor coactivators bind directly to nuclear receptors and stimulate transcriptional activity in a hormone-dependent manner. It plays a central role in creating a multi-subunit coactivator complex, most likely by remodeling chromatin. Participate in the co-activation of different nuclear receptors, such as steroids (GR and ER), retinoids (RARs and RXRs), thyroid hormones (TRs), vitamin D3 (VDR) and prostaglandins (ppar).
Studies have shown that the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway can cause differentiation from embryonic stem cells to trophoblast stem cells, and this regulation is mediated by the phosphorylation cascade. The researchers used phosphoproteomics to detect the dynamic changes in the phosphorylation of proteins that induced Ras overexpression, trying to identify molecules that play a key role in signal transduction. Finally, it was found that Ncoa3 has a certain role in maintaining the self-renewal and multipotency of embryonic stem cells. Ncoa3 has a high expression level in embryonic stem cells, and its expression level gradually decreases with the differentiation of embryonic stem cells.
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